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Keratoconjunctivitis and chlamydiosis in sizing birds. Nisi, H. Baritone on intersex of two would sit Ascaridia hermaphrodita and Ascaridia platyceri Nematoda:.
Zootaxa ; Family Psittacidae Veterinari. Handbook of the birds of the world. Lynx Edicions; Sandgrouse to cuckoos. Primer registro de Acari: Genoprotolichus eurycnemisPoeyana ; Genus Pseudomenopon. Zool Anz ; Rev Bras Biol ; 36 3: Monographie du genre Protolichus Trt et revision des Sarcoptides plumicoles Analgesinae qui vivent sur les perroquets. CapillariaAtas So Biol Rio de ; 3 1: Feather mites of the world Acarina, Astigmata: Part I: Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika; a.
Zootaxa ; Pararalichus gen.
Sciences Zoologiques. Part II: Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika; b. La famille Xolalgidae Dubinin, nouveau statut Sarcoptiformes plumicoles, Analgoidea. Sous-famille Ingrassiinae, n. Acarologia ; Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec Veterunario 59 2: Las aves de Chile: Buenos Aires: Ascaridia platyceriAngew Parasitol ; 20 2: Note on morphology of two nematode species Ascaridia hermaphrodita and Ascaridia platyceri Nematoda: Helminthologia ; 45 3: Nematodes from the genus Ascaridia parasitizing psittaciform birds: Vet Med ; 49 6: Psittacine birds Aves: Psittaciformes as new hosts of Nematoda: Baruscapillaria obsignataActa Vet Brno ; 74 4: Helminths of the Florida duck, Anas platyrhynchos fulvigula.
Proc Helminthol Soc Wash ; 39 2: A manual of acarology. Texas Tech University Press; The use of ecological terms in parasitology aevs of an ad hoc committee of the American Society of Parasitologists. J Parasitol ; 68 1: Les Sarcoptides plumicoles. J Micrographie ; 8: Three new feather mite genera of the generic group Astigmata, Pterolichidae from parrots Aves, Psittaciformes of the Old World. ProtolichusActa Parasitol ; 52 4: Six new feather mite species Acari: Astigmata from the carolina parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis Psittaciformes: Psittacidaean extinct parrot. J Nat Hist ; 39 Taxonomic notes on four genera of dsting feather mite subfamily Pandalurinae Astigmata: Acarina ; 12 1: Acerca del verdadero hospedador de Eichler, Mallophaga, Menoponidae.
Heteromenopon Heteromenopon macrurumPhysis ; 34 Slide-mounting of lice: NZ Abes ; 6 4: FainalgesAratinga holochloraZool Onlije ; 24 3: The genus Veteirnario Menoponidaewith description of a new subgenus and six new species. HeteromenoponAnn Entomol Soc Am ; 60 2: The genus Mallophaga; Menoponidae of the Neotropical Psittaciformes. PsittacobrosusAnn Entomol Soc Am ; 61 2: The chewing lice: Systema Helminthum. New York: Depending on the stage, it may cause an important visual deficit MeyerCubaswhat was commonly complaint during anamnesis in this survey.
Lens extraction is the chosen treatment if evidence of other intraocular disorder is absent: Lensectomy by needle discision and aspiration, and conventional extracapsular extraction or ultrasonic phacoemulsification can be successful in birds Altman et al. Two lensectomies by needle discision and aspiration were successfully preformed in two parrots. When surgery is not performed, lens induced uveitis must be clinically monitored; such ophthalmopathy was reported in 8 of the 24 affected eyes Most corneal problems in psittaciformes are due to epithelial defects secondary to trauma, keratitis secondary to abnormalities of the eyelid, infection, foreign bodies such as sand, grass awns, seed husks and graveland dry eyes MeyerRitchie et al.
In this survey, cornea was the most affected ocular structure 28 reports and ulcerative keratitis secondary to trauma or infection some of the most reported corneal disorders. Keratoconjunctivitis also was frequently observed. Keratoconjunctivitis with blepharitis and periocular feather loss occurs in psittacines in association with Chlamydia psittaci infection Surman et al. Routine testing for clamydiosis, such as cytology and bacteriology is advised in any ocular discharge Meyer Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was suspected in 5 of the 7 reported eyes as ocular discharge and dry cornea were seen. Diagnose could not be confirmed as Schirmer tear test and phenol red thread tear test were not performed in any of the birds.
Schirmer tear test is impractical for most but can be done in large birds; even then, normal values are not available and would need to be estimated from normal eyes of similar species Altman et al. Phenol red thread tear test was already performed in Amazon parrots but its normal values were not established Holt et al. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca in birds is often associated with hypovitaminosis A MeyerCubas Therefore, all affected parrots were successfully treated with oral vitamin A14 and topical cyclosporine A 0. Corneal degeneration was observed in five eyes Fig.
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In pet birds, crystal deposition in the corneal stroma was reported as the second most frequent ocular disorder in pet birds Tsai et al. In all reported cases, neither cellular infiltration nor neovascularization was evoked and the cause was not defined, but poxvirus could be associated with the disorder Tsai et al. Punctate and mycobacterial keratitis can occur in parrots but was not observed in this survey Stanz et al. Leucoma, keratitis, keratomalacia, descemetocele, keratouveitis, corneal abscesses and rupture of the globe were occasionally diagnosed. Uveal tract was commonly affected. Trauma, penetrating injury, systemic disease, autoimmune condition and parasitic, mycotic, bacterial or viral disorders are causes of uveitis in birds Meyer Most of diagnosed uveitis in this survey were due to unknown cause, lens induced, secondary to trauma or keratouveitis.
Glaucoma and buphthalmia have rarely been reported in birds. Identification of glaucoma in most bird species is problematic because of the small size of their eyes, making even the use of applanation tonometers with small tips difficult or impossible Altman et al. When glaucoma is found, it is usually due to trauma and resulting hyphaema, or iatrogenic associated with cataract surgery MeyerCubas Diagnosed buphthalmia in this survey was secondary to trauma and hyphaema. Spontaneous lesions of the retina is rarely reported in birds, but is commonly observed in raptors after trauma.
Retinal detachment and tearing, degeneration of the retina, pecten and choroid or optic nerve atrophy may occur Altman et al. Subtle lesions involving the fundus may have been overlooked because of the absence of mydriasis in some of the birds. Posterior segment could be examined in a darkened room when there were no cataracts and the pupillary diameter was considered sufficient. This form of examination may not be ideal but is possible in some bird species, such as tawny owls Bright and birds attended in typical veterinary teaching hospitals, where mydriatics are commonly found but are ineffective, due to the striated muscle in the iris, which allows voluntary control of their pupil size MeyerCubas Retinal detachment secondary to trauma was reported in 2 eyes and supposed amaurosis in 2 birds as any retinal degeneration was observed.
Retinal degeneration of unknown cause has already been reported in a parakeet Ritchie et al. Conjunctiva and eyelid disorders were relatively frequent observed. In this survey, 2 parrots with aero-sacculitis presented conjunctivitis and 1 with sinusitis presented an eyelid abscess. Other causes are: Juvenile birds present blepharitis more often than adults, probably because the eyelids of juveniles are more exposed to trauma and other insults Cousquer The reported parrot was 1 year old and presented, as a cause for the disorder, knemidocoptic mange Knemidokoptes spp.
Because of the presence of scleral ossicles, traumatic rupture of the eye does not result in collapse of the globe. In cases that cornea cannot be repaired, Veterinaroi could be carried out, but only be performed as last option Meyer Two traumatic globe ruptures were reported in this survey and enucleation was performed in Veterinarrio of the cases. Ages and intraocular neoplasms were rarely reported in this survey. Many case reports have described neoplasms in parrots Paul-Murphy et al. Diagnosed orbital neoplasm occurred along with lymphoma; fine needle cytology examination confirmed the diagnosis Casagrande et al. In cage birds, the majority of conditions reported have been associated with infection, what was frequently observed in this survey.
Otherwise, in raptors, most ocular disorders are related to trauma and lesions are usually found in the posterior segment Gelatt a, Bright Although microphthalmia, microphakia, cataracts, retinal dysplasia, malformation of the ciliary body, choroid, pecten and lentoid formation were already seen in wild-caught raptors Buyukmihci et al. Just cataracts was observed in this survey, but eyes were not examined as the ones in the referred study. Most examined parrots were first attended at the Avian Ambulatory Service of the same hospital for other reasons and when ophthalmological disorders were identified, parrots were refereed to the Ophthalmology Service. Ocular lesions may also be a particularly strong indication of systemic disorders, such as clamydiosis, micoplasmosis, poxvirosis or nutritional deficiency.
A causative diagnosis of ocular lesions may be vital for the avian patient, not only as a basis for effective therapy of the primary disease but also for saving their vision, in which birds are primarily orientated KorbelGelatt a. Uveitis, ulcerative keratitis and keratoconjunctivitis were frequently observed. Cornea, lens and uvea were the most affected ocular structures presenting different disorders.